Cranium: top of skull
Mandible: jaw bone
Vertebrae: back bones
Clavicle: collar bone
Scapula: shoulder blade
Sternum: center of chest
Pelvis: hip bone
Humerus: top of arm
Radius: thumb side of forearm
Ulna: outside of forearm
Femur: top of leg
Tibia: larger bone in lower leg
Fibula: smaller bone in lower leg
Phalanges: fingers and toes
Skeleton: All of the bones in an organism. Provides structure, support and protection.
Internal skeleton: located inside of body. Ex.: humans, vertebrates
External skeleton: also known as exoskeleton. Hard outer covering that provides structure, support, protection. Ex.: insects, lobsters
Joint: Area where two bones meet. Most provide for movement; include fluid for lubrication and cartilage for protection. Ligaments hold bones together.
Cartilage: smooth, slippery substance. Provides cushion, protection for bones in joints; prevents the bones from wearing against each other. Provides some structure in nose and ear. Provides flexibility in ribcage.
Ligament: strong connective tissue fibers that hold bones together
Tendon: strong connective tissue fibers that hold muscle to bone
Fluid: thick, slippery liquid that provides lubrication in joints
Skeletal system: all of the bones in the body, together with the ligaments and cartilage
Outer covering: thin, tough, smooth layer around outside of bone. Provides protection and attachment point for muscles
Compact bone: solid, dense layer around outer surfaces of bones
Spongy bone: highly porous regions of bone inside layer of compact bone; observed in ends of long bones (femur, etc.) and inside flat bones, like ribs. Holes are filled with fat cells, marrow, etc. Spongy bone is porous, but not squishy like a sponge!
Marrow: squishy, fatty tissue found in centers of long bones. Primary site of blood cell production
Rickets: Bone disease resulting in weak or misshapen bones. Caused by vitamin D deficiency – insufficient exposure to sunlight.